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Persona.MoralDiversityr1.15 - 05 Aug 2017 - 16:06 - GregorioIvanoff

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[EVALUATION] [...] Kohlberg's theory has provoked a good deal of criticism. Not everyone, first of all, is enthusiastic about the concept of a postconventional morality. Hogan (1973, 1975), for example, feels that it is dangerous for people to place their own principles above society and the law. It may be that many psychologists react to Kohlberg in a similar way, and that this reaction underlies many of the debates over the scientific merits of his research.

Others have argued that Kohlberg's stages are culturally biased. Simpson (1974), for example, says that Kohlberg has developed a stage model based on the Western philosophical tradition and has then applied this model to non-Western cultures without considering the extent to which they have different moral outlooks.

This criticism may have merit. One wonders how well Kohlberg's stages apply to the great Eastern philosophies. One also wonders if his stages do justice to moral development in many traditional village cultures. Researchers find that villagers stop at stage 3, but perhaps they continue to develop moralities in directions that Kohlberg's stages fail to capture.

Another criticism is that Kohlberg's theory is sex-biased, a view that has been thoughtfully expressed by one of Kohlberg's associates and co-authors, Carol Gilligan (1982). Gilligan observes that Kohlberg's stages were derived exclusively from interviews with males, and she charges that the stages reflect a decidedly male orientation. For males, advanced moral thought revolves around rules, rights, and abstract principles. The ideal is formal justice, in which all parties evaluate one another's claims in an impartial manner. This conception of morality, Gilligan argues, fails to capture the distinctly female voice on moral matters. [...] (CRAIN, 1985).

Keywords: mathematics commons in business, conflict in moral values, sustainability in moral values, development in society, governance in action, stakeholder diversity, sustainability pathways, village cultures, cognitive conflict, moral issues, moral development, moral thought, stakeholder theory, stakeholders identification, adaptive governance, mathematics faculty, moral stages, credible claims, formal justice, female mathematics, female voice, gendered identities, code-switching, convention, abstraction

Palavras-chave: democracia participativa

Baxter, Gerald D., and Charles A. Rarick. "Education for the moral development of managers: Kohlberg's stages of moral development and integrative education." Journal of Business Ethics 6.3 (1987): 243-248.

Desert. Available from < >. access on 3 June 2016.

Kohlberg's stages of moral development. Chapter Seven. W.C. Crain. (1985). Theories of Development. Prentice-Hall. pp. 118-136. Available from < >. access on 29 December 2013.

Leaning: a tendency or partiality of a particular kind. Available from < >. access on 3 June 2016.

Substantive justice vs. formal justice: Formal justice is easier to apply rigidly if one asserts that all laws, whether fair or not, if applied equally to everyone, are therefore just. Substantive justice, on the other hand, has the complex task of ascertaining exactly what is fair. Available from < >. access on 3 June 2016.

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-- GregorioIvanoff - 04 Jan 2014
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